Panigale V4 The Fastest Superbike


Panigale V4 Superbike

The Panigale V4, is a new paradigm. Ducati has given its best shot by bringing this motorbike in the market. In the history of automotive it is considered to be the first mass-produced bike. The motorbike is equipped with a 4- cylinder engine, thus the name Panigale V4. It has replaced the iconic 1299 super sport range by its performance and rideability. Motor bike riders of all levels can privilege themselves with the fun and excitement of the Panigale V4.

The bike is closely collaborated with the Ducati Corse, so that it can give a close competition to the MotoGP in the racing world. There is no doubt that Ducati holds the power of making the most desirable sports bike on the planet. Their bikes hold the characteristics of being lightweight, providing super power delivery, and the kinds that test your abilities to its end limit. It is the real deal, with a 211 bhp and a completely changed MotoGP style frame along with applying the concepts of some most advanced electronics in the world. Panigale is considered one of the most powerful V4 replacing the 1299 Panigale of Ducati's superbike and is known as the 2019 WSB challenger. The bike is simply extraordinary. On its launch Ducati said that this bike is one of the fastest yet the most powerful productions of bikes that the world has witnessed and after its first season the world does not hold any doubts on that. The engine roars like a lion, and its linear look makes it easier to manipulate, but once its engine starts it blows your mind. The frame now has an aluminum twin –spar setup cradling an engine of 1,103cc, with a twin pulseV-4. Panigale is all over the motorbike blogs due to its extraordinary features.
There were news that Bruce Dunn tested this beauty on a two-mile run-away at a cold and damp Bruntingthorpe. The V4 did not disappoint the MCN speed tester as well. Bruce used a 2d data logging setup and the limiter was hit in the top gear with a GPS of 191.3mp was recorded. This proves that the Panigale V4 has the fastest production of a sports bike one could ever test. According to Bruce, the bike could still accelerate even when the limits were hit, which means that it can take higher gears and can probably crack the speed of 200mph. He says, it accelerates so fast that its gears cannot be fed quickly enough. Its demand gets eaten up one after the other very quickly yet maintaining a stable speed, without a slight hint of weave.
The Panigale V4 has the second-generation version of the Ohlin's semi active EC suspension. It could be precisely illustrated with this example that an invisible man with an invisible screwdriver is constantly adjusting, making the bike perfectly suitable in any scenario. It weighs around 195kg to 2.5kg which is lighter than the new 959 Corse. The Panigale V4 has a new 5'' full TFT, with a high resolution and high brightness display. The graphics are completely redesigned and a new virtual circular is also located on the right side. Two layout modes are available i.e. two lap timers are available. One could set the bike according to its demand. If you are a true motor bike lover, than this one sure needs a test drive.


New vehicles from the 2019 Frankfurt Motor Show


Landrover Defender 2020

Every two years, the world's largest automotive show is held, and new vehicles are unveiled. With the display showcasing Volkswagen, Land Rover, and more game-changing unveilings, this year was no exception. Electric cars are big news at this year's show, with the Volkswagen ID 3 having their global premiere alongside the Honda E, Porsche Taycan, Peugeot e-2008 and more. That said, there was still quite a crowd gathered around the conventionally fuelled new cars, especially the redesigned Land Rover Defender.

Top Must-see vehicles from the Frankfurt Show:
Landrover Defender (in photo):
The introduction of the renewed Land Rover Defender was crucial in two respects: first, because it displayed a new edition of a revered model; second, because the Defender's mostly combustion propulsion unexpectedly emerged rather odd and distinct from the advanced electrification accessible elsewhere for all the talk of hybridization. The latest Defender rides off the highway 0.8 inches (2 cm) faster than other Land Rover designs and provides a camera system that enables riders to see what's happening under the front wheels. It provides luxuries such as Apple CarPlay and Android Auto's 10-inch (25 cm) touch screen, features that enable riders to interact with their devices while driving.
Concept 4 Series by BMW:
BMW demonstrated its future thinking with the Concept 4 Series, which will form the basis for both the conventional current 4 Series coupé and the new all-electric i4. Therefore, the latter will be distinct in idea from the i3, which was so different, unique (and eye-watering costly to manufacture). Flexible platforms such as the future i4 may not promote optimized electric car packaging, but in this transition-to-electrification age, they prove to be the way forward. "The BMW Concept 4 embodies the BMW brand's aesthetic essence: it connects ideal proportions with a clear, precise design," explains Adrian van Hooydonk, BMW Group's design director. Laser headlights are designed like a piece of art. The sleek clusters have no glass covering them but depend instead on a three-dimensional structure with exposed internal components. BMW has incorporated enormous air openings just below the headlights, which should provide fresh air to the car brakes and engine compartment. The exterior is finished with the incredible Forbidden Red hue, which further highlights the marvelous contours of the car's body.
Porsche Taycan:
It was right here that Porsche presented plans for its electric future at the 2015 Frankfurt Motor Show for the first time with the Mission E concept. Now four years later, these plans have been brought to fruition with the Taycan production's auto-show debut in the same hallowed halls. Porsche engineers began with the Taycan from scratch. A new skateboard platform was designed to house a few electric motors, one on each axle to power all four wheels, and a battery pack. The engines produce a combined 592 horsepower together. The Taycan manufacturing can achieve 62 mph in less than 3.0 seconds and a maximum speed of 155 mph.
Audi RS6 Avant:
It combines jaw-dropping looks with a powerful twin-turbo V8 4.0-liter and usability for everyday use. Cosmetically, the front doors, roof, and trunk are the only body panels carried over from the standard A6. Everything else, like the chunkier wheel arches, larger air intakes, and larger wheels, is an RS-specific design. The 591-horsepower mild-hybrid can propel the Sportwagon from zero to 62 mph in 3.6 seconds with a top speed of 155 mph, which can be extended with the optional Dynamic and Dynamic Plus packages to 174 mph or 189.5 mph respectively. The new RS6 complements its performance with style. The front end has large intakes for the uprights at the corners with contrasting trim that attracts the eye. The RS6 can brake the inside wheels when cornering to maximize handling, while the optional Quattro Sport differential can send more torque to the outside dynamically. At speeds up to 13 mph, the RS6 can also stop/start, which is said to enhance fuel economy.
This year debut of the Frankfurt Auto Show has revealed a lot of new hybrid and electric cars from various international players. For further information on all the vehicles, you can visit Forbes.


Volkswagen Beetle


VW Beetle motor world

The Volkswagen Beetle is a 2 door, four passenger car that was manufactured between 1938 and 2003, and has become an iconic piece of automobile history. Officially called the Volkswagen Type 1, commonly known in Germany as the Käfer (translated as “beetle” in english) was designed by Ferdinand Porsche between 1934 and 1938, but not mass produced until 1945. It is the longest running and most manufactured car of a single platform ever made.

Original specifications derived from a meeting in 1934 stated that Germany required a basic vehicle that could transport two adults and three children at 100 km/h while not exceeding seven litres of fuel for every 100 km travelled. Economy played a huge role in the Beetle's design which ensured that engine pieces and auto parts could be quickly and inexpensively changed. It was also stated that the engine had to be powerful enough for easy sustained cruising upon the new Autobahn systems in Germany. It was also designed to be as mechanically simple as possible, with an air cooled engine to reduce trips to the mechanic and compact torsion bars acting as suspension.
It was awarded fourth place in 1999 in a Car of the Century competition, the goal of which was to determine the most influential motor of the 20th Century.
The original design had 25 horsepower and could reach top speeds of roughly 100 km/h, however as speed limits were increased after the war, the demand for a higher output meant the horsepower was boosted to 36, and thereafter to 40. It was the most influential rear wheel drive car with a rear engine that began a trend of similar motors to be produced by Fiat and Renault, increasing production of this configuration from 2.6% in continental Europe in 1946 to 26.6% in 1956.
in 1998 Volkswagen released a newer version of the beetle which remained in production until 2010 before being replaced in 2011 by the Beetle A5. The Beetle undertook many revisions and updates between 1938 and 2003 when production of the classic style ceased in Mexico. Updates included a convertible version in 1948, the adding of hydraulic brakes and the option of a folding sunroof in 1950, window enlargements in 1965 and higher mounted C section bumpers in 1968.
The Beetle has also been modified for drag racing due to the weight distribution in the car allowing for maximum grip off the starting line. Because of the RR layout, wheelies are possible and wheelie bars have been added to models modified for drag racing.
The Beetle has also been entered into rallies in European contests in the 60s and 70, most notably between 1971 and 1973 when Volkswagen had their peak racing performance with the VW 1302S and 1303S, known as the Salzburg Rally Beetle and achieved some victories in 1973 on Elba for overall and class, Acropolis for class, and the Austrian championship in 1972.
The Beetle is a very influential vehicle which is recognized world wide and revolutionized the way that we drive in automotive history. It will not be easily forgotten with time.


The German Autobahn


German Autobahn

The Autobahn is the federal controlled highway system in Germany, world famous for it's lack of speed limits for around 50% of the total network, although an estimated further 15% of the enforced speed limits are only temporary. These sections do come with advisory speed limit of 130km/h (80 mp/h). Quickly expanded by the Third Reich in the 20's and 30's for military benefits, these roads have become amongst the favourites of drivers all over the world.

Obviously, travelling above these speeds is not advised and increases the chance of an accident, the drivers liability, and the chances of a fatality or serious injury in the event of an accident, however these high speeds allow users of the Autobahn to travel between cities extremely quickly on smooth and direct roads. The official statement in The German Highway Code, when translated into English, states that “any person driving a vehicle may only drive so fast that the car is under control. Speeds must be adapted to the road, traffic, visibility and weather conditions as well as the personal skills and characteristics of the vehicle and load.” Speed limits are enforced in urban areas and around road works.
Getting a licence to drive in Germany is hard, and reckless driving is not tolerated on the Autobahn. There are 14 required theory lessons and required driving lessons also, and there are formal courses in high speed car control as a car behaves very differently when driven above 90mp/h. German drivers on the Autobahn are well schooled which keeps accidents to a minimum. German drivers also adhere to the left lane passing rules very strictly (bear in mind they drive on the right in Germany) so they will keep as far right as possible, making high speed driving a lot safer. German drivers are also required to take a first aid test to pass their license, and if they seem somebody in distress they are required by law to stop and to assist.
The roads are very well maintained to ensure smooth driving at high speeds, with 3.8 billion euros set to be spent annually on road maintenance.
There is actually a minimum speed limit of 60 km/h, and vehicles that cannot maintain this are prohibited. Slow driving can cause problems for people travelling at reasonable speeds on the road network, and to ensure that there are fewer accidents, this is controlled. It is also illegal to stop, unless in an absolute emergency. Even running out of fuel is held against you as there are fuel stations every 50-55 km along the network.
Despite the faster driving, accidents seem to be a lot less common than in the US. There were only 2.2 road user fatalities per a billion vehicle kilometres in 2008 compared to 4.5 road user fatalities in the US. It seems that, contrary to a multitude of information, fast driving can be conducted safely when users are properly schooled and enforcements are put in place for reckless driving.


Ride Sharing Apps


motor car poparide

For those looking to save a bit of money with their daily commute, there are a number of ride sharing possibilities. The idea is that when you have empty seats in your car, there will be people intending to go the same direction as you who can fill them up, and can offset the price of your fuel and potentially even bring in a profit by paying a minimal amount for those seats.

For the rider, this comes with a number of benefits. First and foremost is the cost - it is usually cheaper to pay for a journey through a ride sharing app than to pay for public transport or to buy a car for that matter. It also has the added benefit of social interaction, the possibility of making new connections, offsetting their carbon footprint by travelling effectively in a green way as the car would already be on the road anyway, and potentially door to door services.
The driver also benefits from this transaction. As well as receiving money for the seats in their car which would normally be empty, they also receive the social interaction and the possibility of making connections and they offset their carbon footprint to a certain degree. The benefit of the money makes the overall cost of travelling in the car cheaper, and if done on a daily basis can be incredibly effective.
This can be done for people who commute to work, although creating a car pool amongst people who live close to you who also work in your office might be a more effective and trustworthy method. It can also be used by people who travel home for the weekend, or for people who travel anywhere from anywhere. The apps effectively let you upload your intended travel trajectory, allowing passengers to search for trips that they intend to make and to find matches for that trip.
Users can not only take one passenger, but can fill up every empty seat in their car providing they have enough space for everybody another luggage.
One example of these apps is Poparide. Their mission is simple: to fill empty seats in cars and help people travel together. They do this by connecting drivers with people heading the same way. By sharing trips, they create a new type of travel that is more social, affordable and sustainable.
Poparide (app in photo) is now used by thousands of people across North America and is quickly becoming the preferred choice to travel between cities: it's faster, more affordable and social than other means of road transport. The Poparide platform is constantly improving thanks to member feedback. The team prides itself on building an evolving consumer product that helps people connect in the real world, and by increasing vehicle occupancy to reduce their impact on the environment.
There are a multitude of different apps on the market that all differ slightly. Some focus more on the daily commutes to and from work, and others like to home in on the environmental factors. Some even let you chose your ride based on factors like common interests and preferred choice of music.
For those looking to save a bit of money and to make a few new friends, this is a fantastic opportunity to turn your car journeys into something a little bit more.


The Benefits of an Automatic Car


The Benefits of an Automatic Car

As technology evolves, the humble automobile is become ever more developed to think for itself and the popularity of automatic cars are on the rise. In certain new world countries such as Australia and New Zealand, they have become standard where in other countries such as Great Britain, the majority of cars still tend to be of manual transmission.

There are a number of benefits to trading in your conventional manual transmission auto for an automatic. Perhaps the greatest advantage is for those times when you are sat in city rush hour traffic, stopping and starting at intolerable speeds through packed streets. When driving an automatic, you do not have constantly control the clutch and the gear stick to safely manoeuvre, which is tedious to say the least in a traffic jam, as all of the control is within the gas pedal, allowing you to relax a little and to move with ease, and to forget about the stress and frustration of always changing up and down to adapt to the situation.
Not only are automatic cars easier to drive in traffic, they are easier to drive in general. There are less controls to worry about as the car does most of the thinking for you. Controlling a clutch pedal is often the hardest thing for younger drivers, and to eliminate this factor makes driving less stressful, not to mention the ease of a hill start that has been the failing factor of many driving tests and, of course, without the need to synchronise a clutch pedal and a gear shift, it is extremely difficult to stall an automatic car, even if you are trying. Some countries even offer automatic driving licences, although this does restrict the user strictly to using automatic cars.
Also, with less driving technique to focus on, it is much easier to concentrate on your surroundings and the road before you. This is particularly effective for longer journeys that tend to become tiring and tedious, providing you don't find yourself bored from having so little to do to control your car. The simplicity and ease of mind of driving an automatic is hard to match in a manual transmission car.
Automatic cars tend to be easier to sell on the modern market as the appeal and demand for them is so much higher than that of a manual transmission car. This means they tend to hold more value over time.
Traditionally, manual cars have had better fuel economy as they tend to weigh less and, if driven by somebody with an economic conscious, where the driver has more control they are able to diminish the consumption by selecting higher gears where appropriate, however technology in automatic cars is quickly catching up to match this and these days there isn't too much difference between the two types of transmission. Some automatic cars even offer a fully manual or partially manual mode which can be selected when the driver wants more control of the vehicle, effectively creating the best of both worlds for the owner.


Why to love the Suzuki Swift


Why to love the Suzuki Swift

With so many supercars such as Ferraris and Porsches taking the spotlight, the Suzuki Swift keeps a relatively low profile in the world of automobiles, however it has been produced since 1983 and is still being developed, improved and manufactured to this day, it's continuation ensured by it's popularity worldwide.

In terms of value for money, the Suzuki Swift ticks a lot of boxes. It is the cheapest automatic car available in India. The engine can produce over 40 miles per gallon which enables one to fill up less and to get more distance out of their fuel than a lot of similar cars on the market such as the Ford Fiesta. It's cheap to initially purchase from $17,225 USD, and relatively reliable when it comes to maintaining the engine over time, keeping maintenance costs to a minimum.
For such a cheap car, the feel and build is not reflected in the price. Multiple users comment on the comfort of the interior during longer trips, even when they fill up the back seats of the three door with adults and children alike. Apart from the Suzuki Swift Sport, the Swift is cheap to insure, falling into the 11E group in the UK which, when compared to the Fiesta, is much more economic.
Considering it is equipped with a very modest 1.2 litre engine as standard, the Swift is incredibly quick and nimble, and when pushed around tight winding corners, often feels like driving a mini sports car with sharp steering, strong grip and smooth gear changes. The excellent suspension soaks up all of the unexpected bumps making a very smooth ride.
The Swift is still available with a manual gear box, while other manufacturers seem to focus on going fully automatic, although the automatic engine delivers even more milage to the gallon, reaching distances of up to 50.4 miles. There is an option to equip your Swift with Dualjet engine which lowers the running costs even more, even eliminating the need to pay road tax in certain countries.
One of the disadvantages of the Swift is the space. Being such a small car, manoeuvrability around tight city roads is not a problem and parking is child's play, but this does come at the sacrifice of a bit of comfort on the inside. For some taller users, the backseats might prove a little too tight, although some users have claimed this isn't a problem, and the high roof means you shouldn't encounter any problems with head room. Trying to fit larger amounts of luggage in the trunk can prove difficult with a capacity of just 211 cubic litres, particularly as most of the space is vertical so wider objects don't always fit.
After a crash test in 2010, the Swift was awarded a five star rating for safety and an impressive 94% score for occupancy protection. The car comes equipped with seven airbags, one even for the driver's knee. ESP and ABS are offered as standard on all models.
While not the most impressive car available, there are many reasons to love this little auto, particularly when you are trying to drive economically and for easy manoeuvring around tight city streets.


What is BioFuel


What is BioFuel motor world

The dictionary definition of biofuel is “a fuel derived from living matter”. This realistically means that it is a fuel that is a product of vegetables or animal fats, and is becoming an increasingly popular choice for powering vehicles around the world. Biofuels have been around for almost as long as cars have, as at the start of the 20th century Henry Ford planned to power his Model Ts with ethanol, and early diesel engines were proven to run on peanut oil.

Currently, bioenergy (which is energy produced from biofuels) contribute around 10% of the world's consumption, although most of this is unprocessed traditional fuels such as charcoal and firewood, mainly used by people in developing countries to cook and to heat their homes with. When biofuels are processed and sold as liquids such as biodiesel and ethanol, they can be used in vehicles to produce velocity.
Ethanol is a type of alcohol that is produced using any feedstock that contains a decent amount to sugar. Examples of this are sugar cane, sugar beet, maize and wheat. The sugar can be fermented into alcohol, and the starch can be converted to sugar which is then afterwards fermented into alcohol. The alcohol is burned, like petrol, to create an ignition in the engine. A litre of ethanol contains about 2/3 of the energy of a litre of petroleum.
Some diesel engines can be run on biodiesel, which can be made from vegetable oils, animal fats, or even leftover cooking oils from restaurants and meat processing facilities.
Biofuels produce less greenhouse gasses when they are burned, and unlike fossil fuels like petrol or diesel, as they are produced using new plants, in the process of developing the fuel some of the carbon dioxide is extracted from the atmosphere in the process of photosynthesis.
Biofuels are better for your engine than petrol. Often the two are mixed together to produce cleaner fuels, and they produce fewer emissions when burned. Your engine will run for longer and require less maintenance and using biofuels will also bring down the overall pollution check costs. As demand for biofuels rises, the cost is predicted to also fall, meaning eventually it is possible it will be cheaper per the kilometre to use biofuel over petrol.
Biofuel is renewable, and so when oil and gas reserves run dry, we will always be able to produce more biofuel. Although not completely green, biofuel is renewable and sustainable making it more effective in the long term than petrol, diesel and natural gas. For counties without reserves or crude oil, reducing their dependancy on fossil fuels and increasing their consumption of biofuels means more jobs will be created and will make their economies more secure.
Biofuel is expensive to produce, however if demand increases this is likely to decrease production costs. There are also concerns over farmers having to produce the same crop year after year and depriving their soil of certain nutrients. There is also a higher dependency on the use of fertilisers in the production of biofuel which can cause pollution to the immediate surroundings of the crop, especially water pollution.


Alternative uses for a car


car table automotive

Obviously the automobile has been designed with one intent in mind - to transport people or cargo from one point to another, however, as a tool, the humble car has been used in many ways since it's invention other than this. Here are just a few examples of how vehicles have been used in more ways than just moving people.

Camper vans - Not only will it move you from one point to another, but a camper van is effectively a mobile home. These come with incredibly versatile features to ensure you are getting the most efficiency out of the diminished living space in the back, including folding beds and chairs, stowaway tables, intelligent space design and rearrangeable furniture. Some of these are so advanced they even have flushing toilets and shower systems. There is a trend to convert old people carriers and estate vehicles into temporary camper vans amongst backpackers and travellers which involves turning the back seats into a comfortable bed, under which clever storage systems can be placed to keep everything you need, from camping stoves to cutlery and so on. While somewhat less advanced, this is usually considerably cheaper and an excellent way to travel if you don't mind getting in touch with the fine outdoors.
Filming - While modern technology is beginning to replace cars used for filming by using drones and systems based on rails, cars have been used extensively for filming and will probably be used for many years to come. You can acquire some really unique shots by filming from a moving platform, and when filming car chase scenes or any scenes involving transportation, it allows for a greater diversity of shots. Cameras can be attached to different parts of the car for different effects, or can be held and operated by people sitting inside the car. Sometimes, cars have even been modified to become remote controlled while holding filming equipment for shooting scenes.
Furniture - People have been using spare car parts for years to create furniture for their home. BBC's Top Gear famously turned an engine into a coffee table, and have also created living room seats from car seats, but other examples found online have been sofas made from car bodies, beds made from pickup trucks, BBQ's made from car grills, lamps made from suspension springs, coasters made from gears and other car parts, gear stick top wine stoppers and of course, the old tire swing. Vintage cars seem to be most commonly used for their aesthetic effect, but using cars and car parts to decorate your home creates a very unique, retro and quirky style.
Music - in 2009, Julian Smith composed a piece of music designed to be played on a Jeep. He placed microphones in and around the vehicle and connected them to a sound desk before several people created sounds using the car doors, the horn, the engine, the ignition, jump cables, and even the seat adjustment buttons and arranged them to create a techno style piece of music all filmed in one take. This goes to show that with a little imagination, incredibly unique and creative ideas can come from every day objects.


Alternatives to Gasoline


Electric cars 2019 motor world

The world's oils supplies are quickly diminishing, and with so many households owning more cars that the number of people they contain, the demand for alternative methods of fuelling transport is ever increasing. Here is a brief insight into some alternatives that are currently on the market and the benefits of using them.

Alcohol or Ethanol
This is made using distilled crops such as corn, barley or wheat. These are renewable sources, although are sometimes blended with petroleum to improve emissions and increase octane levels. Where food sources are used to create this fuel, food prices can potentially increase and availability of them could potentially decrease, so it doesn't come without a price.
Electric cars are effectively refuelled by charging a battery, and there is already an extensive electric network installed in many countries. Electric cars are by far the greenest mode of private transportation, despite the fact that a lot of the electricity is produced using natural gas, coal or oil. If electric cars run on fuel cells, they do not rely on combustion and therefore do not create emissions that harm the environment.
These are the new electric vehicles coming later this 2019: Audi e-tron, Mercedes-Benz EQC, Mini Electric, BMW i3, Nissan Leaf e+, Porsche Taycan, Kia Niro EV, Volvo all-electric XC40, Hyundai Kona Electric, The $35,000 Tesla.
This alternative fuel is made using vegetable oils or animal fats, occasionally recycled from restaurants after they have finished cooking with them. It can come in either it's pure form or be combined with petroleum, the product of which can even be used in unmodified engines.
Certain internal combustion engines can use a mixture of hydrogen and natural gas as an alternative fuel. The positive of this method is that there are no harmful emissions, however it is a very expensive method to use and there is no real infrastructure in most places to support this system. The power is created using a reaction between the hydrogen and the oxygen.
Sometimes referred to as liquified petroleum gas or LPG, this byproduct of natural gas processing and crude oil refining is also used for cooking and heating. It does produce harmful emissions, although less than gasoline, although one of the major disadvantages is the excess of methane which is very harmful to our atmosphere and the rise in global warming issues.
Natural Gas
Like propane, natural gas produces high levels of methane, although overall it produces less harmful emissions than petroleum or diesel. It is quite easily accessible in countries that use it frequently in households for cooking and heating.
The most popular alternative to petroleum is diesel. Diesel engines are considered more efficient and require less maintenance than gas engines. Over time, the development of diesel engines has reduced excess noise that was initially quite a large problem. Diesel engines tend to deliver 25 - 30% better fuel economy. Diesel used to be cheaper than petroleum, however now the prices have risen and they are often much the same per a litre, and as the demand for diesel increases due to more consumers using it for heating and transportation, the price will only rise. Diesel still omits harmful emissions to the atmosphere and is not a long term solution for the shortage on petrol.


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